A collaborative, global project.


Part of: Readability Guidelines

Testing needed

Last updated: 5 December, 2019

We want to find usability evidence to answer style points we did not identify robust usability evidence for in Alpha or Beta. If no evidence exists, Content Design London will look into carrying out new usability studies.

If you know of any evidence for any of these please add a comment on this page, ideally with a link to the usability study.

Positive contractions

We know negative contractions cause issues for some users. Do positive contractions also reduce readability for people with dyslexia, low vision and learning difficulties?

Punctuation and screen readers

We know users can:

  • configure their screen reading software,

  • adapt to idiosyncrasies of software,

  • use software that learns user preferences,

  • comprehend spoken text at very high speeds,

  • slow down, pause and replay spoken text for clarity.

But we would still like to know if having punctuation, for example "en dash", read out is problem, even a low level one, for any users. As we can alleviate that type of thing with sensible content readability guidelines. That is what they are for.

Can we gather a comprehensive list of how screen readers read out dashes? And find out what they do with hyphens? Can we comprehensively research screen readers with other punctuation that conveys meaning or adds nuance, like brackets?


Does type font sufficiently reduce any confusion people experience between 1 (one), l (lowercase letter l) and I (uppercase letter i) and 0 (zero) and O (capital letter o)? Is it enough to recommend clear a typeface, or rewriting sentences to avoid letter and number confusion, or do we need special style rules for 0 and 1 in long form copy? Should we recommend removing these from automatically generated passwords and customer codes?

We've heard mid-sentence links can cause cognition issues. We want to research this as a formal study.

Our approach

First we're searching through existing usability evidence available from:

If applicable, we will design and commission new usability studies in these areas. Content Design London are currently discussing approaches to testing with The Shaw Trust.